Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficiency in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and proficient classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. The estimates of the prevalence of dyslexia are mixed, due to discrepancies in diagnosis; however, recent research studies have found prevalence rates for dyslexia varying from 5-10%, through rates as high as 20-30%.
An accurate and early diagnosis is essential in the remediation of reading skills. If children with dyslexia get effective phonological training in Kindergarten and 1st grade, they will have significantly fewer problems in learning to read at grade level than do children who are not identified or helped until 3rd grade.
At the Brain and Behavior Clinic, our pediatric neuropsychologist provides a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, identifying the underlying cognitive deficits associated with dyslexia, as well as investigating the prevalence of other disorders which often co-occur in dyslexia (e.g., ADHD, Speech/Language Disorders). We provide specific special education recommendations to parents and those learning specialists who work with the child in the academic environment, which are essential in successful remediation of reading/writing skills.
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